Asalamualaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu
What are the valid excuses for missing the Jumah salah?
Sickness, heavy weather (e.g. snow/rain), travel, or caring for someone are valid excuse for a Muslim to miss the Jumu`a prayer.
The Reliance of the Traveller states:
BOOK F: THE PRAYER (SALAT) .
Chapter F18.0: The Friday Prayer (Jumu`a) .
Anyone obliged to pray the noon prayer (zuhr) is obliged to pray the Friday prayer (jumu`a), except for women and for travellers on a trip that is not disobedience (def: f15.5), even if the trip is less that 81 km/50 mi. one way (n: though one’s departure for the journey must have taken place before dawn on Friday, as at f18.6). Valid excuses for not attending group prayer (def: f12.5), such as illness or taking care of a sick person, excuse one from attending the Friday prayer (jumu`a).
Eligible Muslims living in a village where there are not forty men (n: the minimum required for a valid Friday prayer, as at f18.7(e) ) must go to a larger town for the Friday prayer, when the two places are close enough that the call to prayer (adhan) from the larger town is audible to them under normal circumstances, given a calm wind and no interference. Audible means that the call of a man with a loud voice standing in the larger town on the side facing the village could be heard by a man with normal hearing standing on the side of the village facing the town. If such a a call would be inaudible, then the villagers are not obliged to go to pray the Friday prayer (A: but merely pray the noon prayer (zuhr)
A Muslim present at the mosque who is not obliged to pray the Friday prayer may leave (A: instead participating in it, such as a traveller merely wanting to pray the noon prayer (zuhr) and go), except for the following, who must pray the Friday prayer:
-1- someone with an illness for whom waiting for the Friday prayer poses no hardship, provided that he has arrived after its time has begun (O: namely noon, for if he arrives before this, or if waiting is a hardship, then he may leave);
-2- someone who is blind;
-3- or someone whose excuse is muddy terrain [(O: from getting soiled or slipping when walking through it)].
Those present at the mosque who are not obliged to pray the Friday prayer (A: other than the above mentioned) may choose between performing the Friday prayer and the noon prayer, (zuhr) (O: even when the fact that they are present eliminates their excuse). If they want to perform the noon prayer (zuhr) in a group(O;as is sunna) and their excuse from the friday prayer is not obvious to onlookers, then they should conceal their group prayer rather than that display it. (O: which would be offensive under the circumstances).
If a person is not obliged to perform the Friday prayer, but believes the reason for his excuse may disappear, such as sick person (A: hoping to recover before the prayer ends), then he should postpone his noon prayer (zuhr) until he can no longer hope to attend the Friday prayer. But if one’s excuse from the obligation of attending the Friday prayer is not expected to cease, such as being a woman, then it is recommended to pray the noon prayer (zuhr) at the first of its time.
The noon prayer (zuhr) of someone obliged to perform the Friday prayer is not valid until he has missed the Friday prayer (A: by its having finished without his having attended).
-1- there is a place on his route where the Friday prayer will take place:
-2- or he is going to travel with a group (O: of people not obliged to pray the Friday prayer) who are departing, such that his staying behind would entail harm for him.
Hajj Gibril Haddad