In order to make up prayers fast, could you tell me if possible the bare minimum (furud and wajibat) the prayer must consist of according to the four Schools so that prayer is valid without any makruh tanzihan?
The fard (obligatory) prayer has a minimum required to be valid:
- shuroot (conditions)
- arkaan (pillars)
- wajibaat (requirements)
It also has things that are sunnah (recommended), and things that are makrooh (disliked). Then there are things that are generally permissible to be done in the salah.
The conditions are prerequisites that have to be met before a person begins their salah. They have to be met in order for the salah to be valid. If a person does not fulfill anyone of these conditions for any reason, whether it be due to ignorance, forgetfulness, or intentionally does not do them, then their salah is invalid. Once a person realizes that he/she missed a condition they should repeat that salah, even if a long period passes.
The conditions of Salah are 9. They are:
1. Al-Islaam (Salah is only accepted from a Muslim)
2. Al-`aql (Sanity. The insane is not held accountable for his/her actions)
3. Al-tamyeez (puberty)
4. State of purity (having wudu or taking a ghusl to remove ritual impurity)
5. Removal of filth (clothing should be free from impurities)
6. Covering the awrah
7. Commencement of time (The salah must be prayed in its proper time and not a minute before)
8. Facing the direction of the qiblah
9. An-niyyah (the intention for the prayer being prayed should be present)
The pillars of the salah are those things that are necessary for the validation of the salah. If any pillar is left out due to ignorance, forgetfulness, or deliberate omission the Salah becomes invalid. The prostration of forgetfulness cannot compensate for the omission of a pillar. The pillar has to be done or the salah has to be repeated, even if a long time passes.
The arkaan (pillars) of Salah are 14. They are:
1. Standing (An able person must stand while praying)
2. Takbiratul-Ihraam [ the opening takbeer (i.e. the first Allaahu akbar)]
3. The recitation of Al-Fatihah
4. The rukoo` (the bowing position)
5. Rising up from the rukoo`
6. Sujood on the 7 bones (1. forehead & nose, 2&3. both palms, 4&5. both knees, 6&7. both feet – all must touch the floor during prostration)
7. Coming up from the prostration position
8. Sitting calmly between the two prostrations
9. Being tranquil and calm during every pillar position
10. The pillars should be done in order (e.g. rukoo`before sujood etc.)
11. The last tashahhud (at-tahiyaat) [In Fajr the last is also the first]
12. Sitting during the last tashahhud
13. Sending the salaat and salaam upon the Nabi salla ‘Llaahu `alayhi wa sallam (saying “Allaahumma salli`ala Muhammad ….”) in the last tashahhud
14. The two tasleems (saying “assalaamu`alaykum wa rahmatullaah” to the right and then to the left)
Prostration of forgetfulness (sajadatu as-sahuw) is the two prostrations made at the end of the prayer to compensate for mistakes done within the prayer. The mistake of leaving a pillar cannot be made up by simply making these two prostrations.
Waajibaat: The waajibaat of the salah are those things that must be done within the salah and if they are left out due to ignorance or forgetfulness the salah is still valid. If they are left due to these reasons they can be compensated for with the prostration of forgetfulness. However, if they are deliberately omitted then the salah is invalid.
The waajibaat of the Salah are 7. They are:
1. All of the takbiraat except takbiratul-ihram [All the sayings of Allaahu akbar except the first one (first one is a pillar)]
2. Saying: Subhaana rabiyal-`azheem (at least once) in rukoo`/bowing position
3. Saying: sami` Allaahu liman hamidah
4. Saying: rabbanaa lakal-hamd
5. Saying: Subhaana rabbiyal-`ala (at least once) in sujood
6. The first tashahhud (at–tahiyaat) [in Fajr the first is a pillar, in the others prayers they are wajibaat]
7. Sitting down during the first tashahhud
If a person remembers that they forgot one of these wajibaat while still praying, then they only have to make the two prostrations for forgetfulness. If they remember a long time after they already completed the prayer then inshallaah they are excused.
Dr. Senad Agic, Imam
SABAH – Chicago
9920 Grand Ave
Franklin Park, IL 60131